A Guide to the Texas Legal System

Texas Legal System

They say everything is bigger in Texas – and that includes the legal system. This guide will navigate you through the ins and outs of the Texas legal system, highlighting its unique features and comparing it to the legal systems of other states in the USA. Hold onto your cowboy hats – it’s going to be an informative ride! 

Texas Court System

Texas boasts a complex court system with multiple layers and jurisdictions. Unlike most states, Texas has two courts of last resort – the Texas Supreme Court (for civil matters) and the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals (for criminal matters). Here’s a quick breakdown of the courts you’ll find: 

  • Local Trial Courts: Limited jurisdiction, such as traffic violations, small claims, and municipal ordinance violations.
  • County-Level Courts: Original jurisdiction for misdemeanors, probate cases, civil cases under $200,000, and appeals from lower courts.
  • District Courts: Original jurisdiction for felony cases, family law matters, and civil cases over $200,000.
  • Courts of Appeals: 14 appellate courts with jurisdiction over civil and criminal appeals from district and county-level courts.

State Correctional System

Within the Texas legal system, incarceration is handled by the Texas Department of Criminal Justice (TDCJ), operating numerous state prisons, state jails, substance abuse treatment facilities, and other types of correctional institutions. Should you need to locate an inmate or obtain information on their current status, you can use the TCDJ inmate search tool, which can help you navigate through the inmate database in Texas prisons. 

Workers’ Compensation

Unlike most states, workers’ compensation insurance in Texas is not mandatory for private employers. Employers can choose to provide workers’ compensation coverage or go without it, which is called being a non-subscriber. If an employer becomes a non-subscriber, they could be held fully responsible for an employee’s workplace injury and become vulnerable to personal injury lawsuits in court. Employers who do opt in for coverage can benefit from a system that limits their liabilities and streamlines the claims process. 

Community Property and Marital Assets

Relationships can be challenging, but in Texas, even how assets are split during a divorce follows a unique path. Texas is one of only nine community property states in the USA. This means that all property acquired during a marriage (except for gifts, inheritances, and personal injury awards) is considered community property to be divided equally during a divorce. This stands in contrast to common law property states, where assets are typically divided based on equitable distribution principles. 

Eminent Domain

The power of eminent domain allows the government to acquire private property for public use. In Texas, the government must offer the property owner adequate compensation for their property, and both parties must agree on the value. If they cannot reach an agreement, the case may go to a special commissioner’s hearing or even a jury trial to determine fair compensation. Texas has also enacted laws that restrict the use of eminent domain for economic development projects and require transparency in the eminent domain process. 

The Death Penalty – Bigger in Texas

Texas has a reputation for its tough stance on crime, and nowhere is this more evident than in its use of capital punishment. Since the reinstatement of the death penalty in 1976, Texas has carried out more executions than any other state. While other states have moved away from capital punishment or faced legal challenges, Texas continues to carry out executions at a comparatively high rate. Public opinion on this issue, however, remains divided. 

The Second Amendment

When you think of Texas, you might think of enthusiastic support for the right to bear arms. While it’s true that Texas has a strong gun culture, its gun laws can be more restrictive than other states with similar leanings. While open carry of handguns is allowed with a license, Texas doesn’t permit constitutional carry (carrying without a license) like some other states. It’s also worth noting that Texans must adhere to federal background check requirements, limiting the ease of firearm purchases. 

Texas Tort Reform

In response to a growing number of frivolous lawsuits and skyrocketing insurance premiums, Texas has enacted a series of tort reform measures. As a result, Texas is now seen as a leader in this area. Key reforms include capping non-economic damages in medical malpractice cases and limiting awards in certain lawsuits against government entities. While proponents argue tort reform has improved the Texas legal landscape, critics say it has limited access to justice for those in need. 

Texas Stand Your Ground Law

Texas has implemented a ‘Stand Your Ground’ law, which allows individuals to use deadly force to protect themselves or others, as well as to protect their property, without the requirement to retreat first. However, it should be noted that the law has some caveats. Deadly force may only be used if the person reasonably believes that it is necessary to prevent imminent danger or harm, and it cannot be used against a person who is only trespassing or incurring minor property violations. 


From its complex court system and community property rules to its gun laws and tort reform measures, the Texas legal system has various unique aspects. Regardless of one’s personal views, there’s no denying that the Lone Star State is a fascinating study of how law and culture interact. Whether a citizen or simply a curious reader, you can now have a better understanding of the Texas legal system, making you more knowledgeable about the vast and diverse legal landscape of the United States.

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